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Wednesday, 4 March 2015

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Abdominal Surgery With Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy : Symptoms, Side-Effects, Complications

An adrenalectomy is a surgical treatment that removes the adrenal gland if it is malignant or produces excessive amounts of hormone. The adrenalectomy is usually done via small incisions (minimally invasive), although it may also be done as an open procedure.


What exactly are the adrenal glands?


The adrenal glands are triangular-shaped glands that sit atop the kidneys. They produce hormones including estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, and cortisol, as well as compounds like adrenalin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.


The adrenal glands are little yellow-bronze organelles situated towards the top of each kidney in the retroperitoneum (the rear of the abdomen behind the abdominal lining).


They provide vital hormones that regulate the body's fluid and salt balance, blood pressure, muscular growth, sexual urge and development, and sugar metabolism, as well as functioning as a source of epinephrine, often known as adrenaline. Only one adrenal gland, like the kidneys, is normally necessary to live a normal life. An adrenalectomy is, of course, the surgical removal of an adrenal gland.


What are some of the causes for an adrenalectomy?


Adrenalectomy is most often used to treat adrenal gland cancers. It is used to treat a wide range of benign and malignant diseases, including pheochromocytoma, hyperaldosteronism (primary and secondary), and adrenal cancer.


The conventional technique of removal has been by incisions in the front of the abdomen or in the lower back. Both of these wounds may cause discomfort and need a lengthy recuperation time. The laparoscopic method may help to alleviate the discomfort and impairment caused by these incisions.


When should a laparoscopic procedure be used?


Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is an excellent alternative for many benign conditions, particularly Conn's tumors and sporadic pheochromocytoma – both of which are benign tumors that can secrete hormones that cause the patient's blood pressure to skyrocket – and for hormonally inactive tumors discovered while looking for another condition.


How is the laparoscopic procedure carried out?


Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure that removes the adrenal gland without requiring a large incision. Using a laparoscope to remove an adrenal gland is a technically hard technique that requires particular skills and experience. It provides a far better picture of the gland and its surrounds than any of the more typical procedures discussed above.


A telescopic camera system is inserted via a tiny incision in the abdominal wall during laparoscopic surgeries. Additional tiny incisions are created through which devices to execute the surgical operation and hold or move tissue in the belly are placed. Adrenal gland fragments are liberated from surrounding tissue.


The tumor is then put in a tiny bag and removed from the abdomen through one of these small incisions.


A laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a minimally invasive technique that accesses the adrenal gland using tiny incisions and instruments. Three to four tiny (0.5-1 centimeter) incisions are made in the abdomen to accomplish the procedure. Through these tiny incisions, a telescope and small equipment are sent into the belly, allowing the surgeon to entirely remove the damaged adrenal gland. The adrenal gland is put in a plastic bag and extracted whole via one of the incisions.


Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is normally done under general anesthesia and takes one to two hours to complete.


Patients report less discomfort and shorter recovery periods after this less intrusive method to adrenalectomy. When compared to conventional open surgery adrenalectomy, laparoscopic adrenalectomy results in significantly less pain after surgery, shorter hospital stays, earlier return to work and daily activities, more favorable cosmetic outcomes, and outcomes that are identical to those of open surgery for noncancerous (benign) tumors.


What are the benefits of a laparoscopic approach?


People who have had laparoscopic adrenalectomy have fared substantially better than those who have had regular, "open" surgeries, with a much speedier return to normal activity, a shorter hospital stay, less need for pain medication, and a much reduced incidence of complications.


When is the standard procedure indicated?


It is widely accepted that a "open" operation is preferable for adrenal cancer and conditions where there is a high risk of adrenal cancer, such as large (4-7 cm) tumors or those associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia, because both sides can be carefully examined and dealt with in the event of spread.



Most individuals recover rapidly following laparoscopic adrenalectomy. They often remain in the hospital overnight, then recuperate at home for one to three weeks before returning to full function.

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