Dhoopana is one of the measures suggested for the preservation of man's internal and exterior surroundings. Dhoopana is an essential component of Ayurvedic therapies. Dhoopana is a form of fumigation that uses herbal medications, herbomineral drugs, or animal origin pharmaceuticals to treat Vrana, Yonivyapada, Karnarogas, Nasarogas, Gudarogas, Gatra-dourgandhya, to disinfect Bheshajagar, Vranagar, Sutikagar, Shashtra-karmagruha, Kumaragar, and to sterilise Asava Since the Vedic time, agnihotra has been used to sterilise the air, as has homa, Havana, and yagnya to sterilise the home and its surroundings. Dhoopana has also been cited in vrikshayurved for its antibacterial and growth stimulating properties for the healthy development of plants. Dhoopana has a wide range of aesthetic, spiritual, psychological, and medicinal implications.
The formulations are often composed of pharmaceuticals that have a synergistic impact and aid in the propagation of the primary antibacterial drug's action. Ayurvedic fumigation is an example of medicine administration by inhalation that has a number of benefits. It involves simplicity of administration, increased bioavailability, and the capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier. This process is generally performed with agni and vayu mahabhoot Pradhan dravyas. These characteristics of dravyas aid in their fast spreadability and combustion. These medications may be found in nature as laghu, sheeta, ruksha, and vishada. The majority of dravyas are very volatile. Their volatility helps to reduce microbial contamination in the air and on difficult-to-reach surfaces.
Volatile oils, which frequently include the primary aromatic and flavouring components of herbs and spices, have been demonstrated in studies to produce no loss of organoleptic qualities, prevent microbiological contamination, and so lessen the beginning of spoiling when added to food. Furthermore, data shows that these oils have a high level of antioxidant activity. Texts mention a total of 94 formulations. The amount of chemicals in a dhoopana composition ranges from one to many medications. The most likely method of action It dilates blood vessels and aids in blood oxidation. It results in proper tissue perfusion and oxygenation. As a result, irritation, itching, and infection are reduced.
Drugs used in the practise of dhoopana karma Plants from the kushuthara, krimighna, kandughna, and vranaharagana families have been utilised mostly for their antibacterial qualities. Haritala and manashila minerals with sulphur compounds were employed. Animal items such as hair, nails, horns, and so on have been employed where keratin is a structural component containing sulphur.
The sulphur in these chemicals may have an important function in disinfection. The scent of animal excreta may have been employed to drive away important disease vectors such as mosquitoes, worms, maggots, and other insects. Dry animal excreta has also been utilised as a fuel source. Animal excreta is mostly made up of flammable gases.
Similarly, most dravyas include ingredients such as ghee and sarjarasa to aid in burning.Guggul has been referenced in 15 different formulations. Ghee is available in 41 formulations, Sarjarasa in 13 formulations, and Excreta in 20 formulations. Nimba ( azadirachta indica) Its active components, such as 22, 23-dihydronimocinol derived from leaves and azadirachtin isolated from seeds, have insecticidal and repellant properties.
A. indica fumes inhibited Streptococcus pyogenes 100 percent after 10 minutes of exposure and 50% after 5 minutes of exposure. It also inhibited S. aureus, S. epidermis, and P. aeruginosa in the same condition. Topical use of Azadirachta indica is beneficial against head lice.
Fumigation with azadirachta indica volatile oils has a strong insect repellent effect. An olfactometer research using the volatile oils of the leaves of A. indica revealed 73 percent repellent activity at a dosage of 80mg.
Guggulu (commiphora wightii)
Guggul extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against gramme positive and gramme negative bacterial species of therapeutic importance. Ethanol extract was shown to have more activity than other organic and aqueous guggul preparations. Gram-positive bacteria demonstrated competent but varying susceptibility to all of the extracts tested. Even at low doses, several of the extracts inhibited bacteria significantly.
Sarshap (Brassica compestris)
Brassica species exhibit varying profiles of glucosinolates, which have biocidal effect against a variety of diseases, including bacteria and fungus. Brassica plants are efficient against nematodes when fumigated.
Nirgundi (vitex nigundo)
In the laboratory, petroleum ether (60-80c) extracts of vitex nigundo leaves were tested for larvicidal effectiveness against culex tritaeniorhynchus larval stages. C. tritaeniorhynchus larvae were shown to be more vulnerable. It offered protection from mosquito bites that ranged from 98.8 percent to 100 percent. In the field testing, it was discovered that v nigundo leaf extracts provided protection against the three most important vector mosquitoes, anopheles, culex, and aedes species. The larvicidal effectiveness is equivalent to that of fenthion, an organophosphorus larvicide that is commercially available.
Tulsi (ocimum sanctum) essential oils, including methyl chavicol, eugenol linalool, camphor, and methyl cinnamate, as well as certain physiologically active compounds that are insecticidal, nematicidal, and fungistatic. Oil extraction extract also shown antimicrobial properties. This is mostly owing to the presence of eugenol, a phenolic molecule with antibacterial effects on multidrug resistant shigella strains. Houseflies and mosquitoes are both killed by the essential oil's larvicidal properties. Essential oils and their constituents, such as linalool, have antifungal efficacy, particularly against candida.
The herbs nimba, guggul, sarshap, nirgundi, and tulsi have significant antibacterial activity and may therefore be effectively employed in fumigation therapy as both primary treatment and prevention with few unwanted effects. The medications mentioned will be useful to researchers preparing clinical trials with them, and they may be utilised in newborn wards and operating rooms as an effective, safe alternative to current disinfectants used in fumigations.