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Wednesday, 4 March 2015

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A trauma or any deep seated physical injury to any part of the body causes formation of a wound, during burns, bites from poisonous animals or deep cuts or injures that damage nerves, blood vessels, tendons and bones. The medical procedure to heal a wound to remove the dead, necrotic, infected tissue is termed as debridement. It is the most crucial healing method  to prevent spread of infection and prepare a ground for regeneration of damaged tissues of skin.

The choice for selection of method for wound debridement depends on the extent of damage, which include surgical debridement, biological debridement, enzymatic debridement and autolytic debridement.

Surgical debridement is best for healing large wounds. It is the most potent, rigorous method done by the most skillful surgeon in a well equipped surgical operation theatre. Serious life threatening wounds that cannot be treated with antibiotics and when infection cannot be controlled by basic wound care methods, then the necrotic tissue is surgically removed using sharp instruments like scalpel, scissors or forceps or heat. The surgeon inspects the wound and saves the healthy tissues by cutting the damaged, non viable, necrotic dead tissue thereby preventing spread of infection and preserving the normal tissues. The process of healing of a large wound is very complex and requires advanced wound care methods to get a complete cure.

A large wound that has been managed through surgical debridement procedure often needs enzymatic and mechanical debridement techniques of wound repair in the subsequent weeks. Once the dead, infected tissue is surgically removed, the skin and wound is treated using enzyme solutions or ointments. Dressing of the wound is done daily in this enzymatic debridement method using antiseptic ointments that heals the soft tissues and removes the exfoliated dead skin.

As the natural process of healing eventually starts in large wounds, mechanical debridement is done as the final procedure in healing the wound. Dressing of wound is done daily known as a wet or dry dressing using moist gauze applied on the wound which is then covered with a sterile bandage. When the dressing dries out, the tissue surrounding the gauze is removed and patient gradually recovers from a large wound.

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